In English

de Acuña, Cristobal S.J. Nuevo descubrimento del gran rio de las Amazonas, from Expedition into the Valley of the Amazons, Clements F.Markham, (Haklyut Society, London 1859).

Allen, Stewart Lee The Devils Cup: Coffee, the driving force in history, Canongate, 1999. My coffee history facts.

Amnesty International, Brazil: Candelária and Vigario Geral, Justice at snail's pace, AI Index AMR 19/11/97

Amnesty International, Candelária trial, AI Index AMR 19/020/1996

Amnesty International, Crime without punishment: Impunity in Latin America, AI Index AMR 01/008/1996

Bazin, Germain Baroque and Rococo, World of Art series, (Thames and Hudson, 1998) All the terminology.

Box, Ben and Day, Mick Brazil Handbook, (Footprint 2000)

Bradbury, Alex Guide to Brazil (Bradt publications 2nd edition, 1997). Excellent eco-chapter on the Amazon, containing that hamburger-rainforest equation and information on the Pantanal.

Bramly, Serge Macumba (City Lights San Francisco, 1975). A very readable book on Afro-Brazilian religions, although it concentrates on Umbandá. Still, there aren't many of its kind in English.

Burton, Isabel, The Romance of Isabel Lady Burton, The Story of Her Life Told in Part by W.H. Wilkins (London, Hutchinson 1897).

Caldeira, Teresa P.R. City Of Walls: Crime Segregation and Citizenship in São Paulo, (University of California Press, 2000).

Carter, David: Butterflies and Moths, (Dorling Kindersley, 1992)

de Carvajal, Gaspar Descubrimiento del Rio de las Amazonas , Heaton H.C. (editor), The Discovery of the Amazon According to the Account of Friar Gaspar De Carvajal and other Documents with an introduction by José Toribio Medina, The American Geographical Society (The Commonwealth Press, 1934)

Cheke, Markus Carlota Joaquina, Queen of Portugal, (Sidgwick and Jackson Ltd, London 1947). This is a fantastic find from Londons second hand bookshops: a detailed account of the turbulent years in Portuguese and Brazilian history focusing on the personlaities. Most of the accounts around Brazil's independence come from this book.

Dalby, Andrew, Dictionary of Languages, (Bloomsbury, 1999). Various etymologies.

Davies, Howell (editor), The South American Handbook, (42nd Edition, Trade and Travel Publications Ltd, 1966) and Box, Ben (editor)72nd edition (1996)

Dillon-Malone, Aubrey The Cynics Dictionary, (London, 1999)

Domville-Fife, Charles W. The United States of Brazil, (Francis Griffiths, London 1910) - A rare travelogue from the turn of the century.

Draffen, Andrew, Strauss, Robert, Swaney, Deanna Brazil, a Travel Survival Kit (Lonely Planet 1992).

Eakin, Marshall Brazil: The Once and Future Country, (Macmillan, 1997). A very readable book especially in the sections which analyse the problems faced by modern Brazil.

Freyre, Gilberto The Masters and The Slaves, (In translation), (Alfred a Knopf second edition, New York, 1956). The seminal anthropological and social work about Brazil full of interesting facts and ideas. His ideas permeate my travelogue.

Gheerbrant, Alain The Amazon: Past Present and Future (Thames and Hudson, 1992). An excellent New Horizons pocket book which is faultless in its history, its colourful presentation and its concise content. If you read only one book on the Amazon read this one.

Green, James N Beyond Carnival, Male Homosexuality onm Twentieth-century Brazil, (University of Chicago Press, 1999)

Hemming, John Amazon Frontier, The Defeat of the Brazilian Indians, (Pan Macmillan 1987).

Hemming, John Red Gold, The Conquest Of The Brazilian Indians, (Pan Macmillan, 1978).

Hemming, John The search for Eldorado, (Michael Joseph Ltd, 1978). Those three books are my main and major reference on the beginnings of Brazilian history and Indian tribes. Almost all the information about the Amazons, Potiguar, Prince of Nasau, cannibalism, Guaikurú, Kaingang, Guarani setms from here.

Hubala, Erich The Herbert History of Art and Architecture: Baroque and Rococo (Herbert Press, 1976)

Jenkins, Garry The Beautiful Team, (Simon and Shuster, 1997 ).Excellent book about the 1970 Brazilian Football team.

Koster, Henry Travels in Brazil, (Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orms & Brown, London, 1817) (reissued by Southern Illinois University Press, 1966)

Levine, Robert M. and Crocitti, John J editors The Brazil Reader, (Latin America Bureau , London 1999). Collection of original documents in translation. It provided information on Ganga Zumba, the 1976 colour survey, the slave boat logbook, the 1932 São Paulo revolt, the Indians in São Paulo and the Pixote 'what-happened-next' section.

Long, William R. The Word Denied from Traveller's Tales, Brazil, 1997. The Guarani Indians' suicides.

Love, Joseph L. Rio Grande do Sul and Brazilian Regionalism 1882-1930, (Stanford Uni Press, 1971). Behind this boring title - you know you are getting obsessive when you buy books no one would touch, is a superb discourse on the First Republic concentrating on Rio Grande do Sul, but presenting the whole set of political dynamics.

Machado de Almeida, Lúcia Passeio a Ouro Preto/Strolling round Ouro Preto (Coleção Reconquista do Brasil, vol 32, 1980) . One of the the few English books about Ouro Preto. Many details about Chico Rei, Gonzaga and Ouro Preto churches come from there.

Matthiesen, Peter The Cloud Forest, (Penguin 1996)

McEwan Colin, Barreto, Cristiana and Neves, Eduardo Unknown Amazon (The British Museum Press 2001). An archaelogical book to accompany an exhibition in the British museum. The information on yware-pemme is from here.

Mc Lynn, Frank From the Serras to the Pampas: Richard Burton's Travels to the Americas 1860-69, (Century, 1991).

Ritterband, Charles Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 13 June 1998 - article on the Ciudad del Este illicit markets.

Ritterhausen, Wilma and Brian Orchids, (Quadrilel 1999).

Rocha, Jan Brazil: In focus, (Latin American Bureau 2000)

Santos, Boaventura de Sousa Participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre: Toward a redistributive democracy, Politics & Society, (Stoneham, Dec 1998). Budgeting in PoA

Schemo, Diana Jean A Nazi's Trail Leads to Gold -- Looted From Jews? -- In Brazil, New York Times, 23 September 1997. Information about Alfred Blume and Nazi conduits to Brazil.

Skidmore, Thomas E. Brazil - Five Centuries of Change, (Oxford University Press, 1999). A slim but dense volume on Brazil's history.

Slesser, Malcolm Brazil, Land Without Limit, (Barnes and Co Inc., NJ 1970). This is probably one of the weirdest travelogues about Brazil. Dr Slesser was an English academic who taught and travelled in the late 1960s in Brazil. He is totally biased and a technocrat to the bone: he describes the state of the highways better than the people. His reason for his decision not to visit Iguaçú although in Upper Paraná ("We did not go on the principle that a waterfall was a waterfall") has become a measure of pedantry in Brazil guides.

Smith, Nigel J.H., Serrâo, Emanuel A.S., Alvim P. T., and Italo C. Falesi I.C Amazonia - Resiliency and dynamism of the land and his people (United Nations University Press 1995). A UN book with the latest details about the environmental threats facing the Amazon; it dismisses the hamburger-rainforest myth.

Spotte, Stephen Candiru, Life and Legend of the Bloodsucking Catfishes, Creative Arts Book Company, Berkeley, 2002) My candiru facts.

Trevisan, Joâo Perverts in Paradise (In translation), (Gay Men's Press, 1986). This is a remarkable book which transcends its seemingly narrow subject through its humane philosophical insights.

Uys, Errol Lincoln Brazil, (Pan, 1986) . A historical novel in the tradition of James Michener presents the history of Brazil over the centuries. The book that got me interested in the country.

Wittbecker, Alan E. Recognizing Primary Cultures as Independent Nations and Creating a Framework for Them, Pan Ecology, Vol 6 Number 4, 1991. The background of my Pantanal musings.

In Portuguese

de Amorim, Aluízio Batista Nazismo em Santa Catarina, (Florianópolis 2000) - most of the stuff on Nazis in Santa Catarina -stems from there, although the specific information on Mengele I took from various news archives.

de Araujo, Maria Celina O Estado Novo, (Editora Jorge Zahar, Rio de Janeiro, 2000)

Arruda, Roldão Judiciário amplia direitos de homossexuais, article in the Estado do São Paulo, 9 April 2001

Bazin, Germain Aleijadinho et la sculpture Baroque au Brésil (Edition du Temps, Paris, 1963) Portuguese translation by Mariza Murray (Editora Record, undated). Aleijadinho facts.

Bueno, Silveira Vocabulário Tupi-Guarani-Portugués (6th edition, São Paulo 1998). This is where all my smart-arse knowledge of Tupi toponyms comes from.

Calliari, Mauro Fortaleza, Ceará - Album de Viagem e Turismo, (Editora Abril, undated)

Camargo, Lucila (ed) Almanaque Abril 2000 Brasil (26th edition) and 2001 (27th). This is the stats and concentrated reference info on Brasil anno 2000. Recommended if you want to know, like me, the population of greater Fortaleza or after whom the street your hotel is in was named .

Cheuiche, Alcy and Melgar, José Carlos Sepé Tiaraju (Martins Livreiro 1994) Sepé's life.

Drey, Vilmar Guia Caminhos da Serra do Mar e Ilha do Mel, (Curitiba 1999) The Litorina trip facts.

Duarte, Marcelo  O Guia Dos Curiosos (Cia das letras, 2000). This is a fantastic book on the quirks of all aspects of Brazilian life and history ands a major, major reference. I have used many factoids from Cacareco the rhinoceros to the dishes in the last ball of the monarchy.

Daou, Ana Maria La Belle Époque Amazônica (Editora Jorge Zahar, Rio de Janeiro, 2000) A short pocket book on the rise and fall of Manaus and Belem during the rubber boom.

Ellera Beatriz & Zavier, Wilma Elias, Viagem Pelos Caminhos De Minas Gerais, (Editora das Autoras, 1997).

Fátima, Maria de Portugues das Neves Documentos sobre a Escravidão no Brasil. (Editora Contexto 1991). Some slavery documents I quoted from come from here.

Fausto, Carlos Os Índios antes do Brasil, (Jorge Zahar Editor Ltda, 2000)

Ferreira, Marina Baird & dos Anjos, Margarida (editors) Aurélio Século XXI, O Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa, (Editora Nova Fronteira, 1999). The big gun: 2125 pages of a Portuguese-Portuguese Dictionary which I consulted more frequently than any other book. I do believe it has an error in the candiru entry, though.

Figueira, Divalte Garcia Cidades Históricas e o Barroco Mineiro (Editora Itatiaia, 2000)

Filho, Ives, Gandra Martins, 500 Anos de História do Brasil, (Editora LTR São Paulo, 1999)

Fonseca, Eduardo Candomblé, A Dança Da Vida, (Fundação Joaquim Nabuco Recife, 1999). A heavy-going anthropological study.

Gonzalez, Concepción Maldonado (Director) Clave, Diccionario del Español Actual, (ediciones SM, Madrid, 1997) for the Prologue by Gabriel García Márquez. The green lemons anecdote.

Leite, Basílisso Generalidade das Missões Jesuíticas, (Jornal das Missões, 6th edition 1998). A local history book by a Santo Ângelo journalist, main reference for the Missions history.

Marques, Lilian Argentina B - Ribeiro, Simon Paula - Sanchotene, Rogério Fossari, Siqueira Campos, Sonia Rio Grande do Sul, Aspectos do Folklore 4a edição, (Martins Livreiro 1998).

Milko, Peter (editor) Pantanal and Bonito, (Guias Philips, Horizonte Geográfico, 2000). I didn't have this guide when I travelled, but I used them extensively in the relevant chapters to complement the facts on the flora and fauna of Bonito and the Pantanal.

Novães, Carlos Eduardo & Lobo CésarHistória do Brasil para Principiantes, (Editora Ática, 1998). Incisive left-wing cartoon book with 393 illustrations over Brazil's history from Cabral to the Plano Real.

Neiva, Tia Vale do Amenhecer Sob Os Olhos da Clarividente Tia Neiva, (Editora Vale do Amanhecer, Planaltina 1999). Valley of the Dawn dogma.

Soares, Daso Revista dos Orixás: Origens and Lendas Vol I-IV, (Editora Provenzano, Rio de Janeiro 1999). Invaluable in the dictionary of terms they provide associated with Afro-religions, as well as a list of sacred herbs, rituals, legends and foods associated with each god. My main reference for candomblé.

Sola, José Antônio Canudos - Uma Utopia no Sertão (Editora Contexto, 1997) Excellent, readable, dense and succinct monograph on the story and significance of Canudos - my main reference on the facts.

Spina, Nicolino Recife, Olinda - Album de Viagem e Turismo, (Editora Abril, undated)

Zeca, Ligiéro Iniciação ao Canomblé (Nova Era Rio de Janeiro 1999). My búzios section comes from there.


Amazonas Indian Turismo, Brochure, Manaus 1993.

Brazilian Chamber of Deputies, SECOM, 1998

Brasilian Senate, Senado Federal , 1998

Chico Rei brochure, Chico Rei Mine entrance

Curitiba Tourism brochure, 2000

Fatos e Fotos, Especial deluxo Gay Carnaval 2000, (Bloch, Rio de Janeiro, 2000)

Guia Quatro Rodas Brasil 2000, (editora Abril, 2000)

Guia do Carnaval da Bahia, (Oxagrian Assessoria de communbicação Ltda 1999)

Guia do ócio, Salvador City Guide, March 2000

Mensagens de Pai Seta Branca (Obras Sociais dea Ordem Spiritualista Cristã, Planaltina, 1991). All messages of Father White Satin.

Somos, February 2000 - quarterly paper of Grupo Gay de Alagoas, Maceió.

Turismo & Hotelaria, São Paulo Tourist Board, March and May 2001.

Una Ecopark and Canopy Walkway, brochure, 2000.

Finally thanks to Boyz magazine, DNA and QX for the ideas regarding excuses for dumping someone in a club (Fortaleza chapter) and for the inspiration regarding the musings on homosexuality in Porto de Galinhas (cahpter 5).

Web sites My site, with complementary pictures of the sites you have read in this book. Sir Walter Raleigh (1554-1618): The Discovery of Guiana, 1595 - free text

http://www.geo.brown,edu/amazon/AmazonTexts/ThreeHundredHTML.htm evidence of green stones in Alter do Chão. The passage on Armored Catfishes by Roberto E. Reis. Brazil online almanac : etymology of forró. (with two z) This is the web site of an online magazine about Brazil. Generally excellent. I consulted two very good articles on Chico Science and Zumbi of Palmares. A German World Music site but one with a recommended article on the pernambucan music scene, by Luciana Ferreira Moura Mendonça. The ethnologue site for Brazil. Tribe information is from there, especially the extinct tribes of Pernambuco. Grupo Gay de Alagoas. Renildo Santos torture facts, Outed: the 100 most famous Brazilian homosexuals in the site of the Grupo Gay da Bahia - a site on the artist Carybé. - a site on the twelve Kings of Dahomey which is almost exactly as were presented in the Afro-Brasilian museum. Close your eyes, go to the site and you're in the museum. Ecoparque de Una. This is a must-see page for the scary map of rainforest destruction. - A good web site of the Jorge Amado Foundation - a site on the mine of Chico Rei. zebu museum - a fantastic nature photography site for the animals of the Pantanal Christianity and Slavery article The Catholic encyclopaedia online (and information about Dom Bosco and slavery). of the Sisterhood of Boa Morte Xavante page where you can find the full creation myth.

There is an extraordinary amount of sites dealing with Curitiba and its traffic. I have used: IMAGENS DE 27/01/2001: Photos of the Gaúcho Crioulo show An interesting article on Pelotas and its reputation for homosexuality - the web site of the gringo bar in São Paulo Among the wealth of soft porn web sites in São Paulo, I can't resist offering you the pizzaria erótica. The Brazilian Senate A good historical site about Brasília; I have consulted it for certain Brasilia details (DKW cars, lighting, Dom Bosco's dream, dates, which blocks were ready, et al. The MST site in English. The official Vasco da Gama football site - checked Raul's facts.


Do you want to learn Portuguese and are an English speaker?

I first learned the languagewith the BBC's Discovering Portuguese: An Introduction to the Language and People - a set of six long lessons with two accompanying cassettes. I swear by this introductory course. From then on, it's up to you.

John Malathronas, 2003